Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease that affects more than 6 millions individuals. Patients with Parkinson's disease are presented with resting tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability, depression, sleep disorder, and cognitive deficits. Fortunately, research has been done with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to help with the burdens of Parkinson's disease.
Non-pharmacological interventions are now being considered as a significant part of treatments for Parkinson's disease which include rehabilitation training and neuromodulation techniques, including TMS. This is exciting news as the primary protocol for alleviating symptoms of PD is a drug called Levodopa. The results from a meta-study analysis indicated that high-freqency stimulation over bilateral M1 and DLPFC has the most effective benefits on the motor symptoms in parkinson's disease. The M1 region of the brain is responsible for controlling voluntary movement while the DLPFC coordinates higher level cognitive processing and communicates with the M1.
TMS uses a non-invasive neuromodulation technique aimed at stimulating specific brain regions. This consists of two magnetic coils placed on the head to create a magnetic field to stimulate neuronal activity in the brain. In Parkinson's there is a reduction in dopamine in the striatum, however targetting the M1 and the DLPFC influences the release of dopamine to the striatum thereby potentially helping the motor symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease.
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